The largest landholder on Esquimalt Harbour today is the Department of National Defence. Canadian Forces Base (CFB) Esquimalt is Canada's Pacific Coast naval base and home port to Maritime Forces Pacific (MARPAC) and Joint Task Force Pacific Headquarters. CFB Esquimalt includes an active graving dock, fuel jetties, wharves, and other installations associated with operation of Canada’s Pacific naval fleet. The federally-owned Esquimalt Graving Dock, operated by Public Works and Government Services Canada, services Canadian naval vessels, BC Ferries, as well as commercial and cargo ships from all over the world. It has the largest solid-bottom commercial dry dock on the west coast of the Americas. Victoria Shipyard, a private company, also uses this facility to build and repair vessels.
Approximately 4,000 military personnel and 2,000 civilians are employed at the Esquimalt naval base, a major economic force and the third largest employer within the capital region.
Other harbour uses today are primarily residential, along with national and municipal park lands and some commercial enterprises.